原标题:人造光影响北极浮游动物 | 暗夜保护研究

编者按:1879年10月21日,电灯问世,从此极大的改变了人们的生产生活方式。此后约150年中,人类“日出而作,日入而息”的自然昼夜节律,逐步被人工照明所代替,而掌控照明科技的人类成为暗夜的主宰。这一系列变革,无疑是进步的,带来了极大的便利。

然而,科技是一把双刃剑。近年来越来越多的研究发现,人造光也可能是一种污染源,——光污染。自然的暗夜以及在昼夜交替的自然律动中经过数以万年计进化至今的生物和生态系统,人工照明带来的“光污染”,让深深篆刻在它们DNA里的密码不适应,并带来一系列的问题。之前已经有大量研究表明,光污染对于昆虫、海洋动物、迁徙鸟类等可能带来的严重影响,如让它们失去方向,扰乱它们的自然作息,导致致命后果。

光污染、暗夜、星空遗产等概念,对中国人民来说还并不熟悉。为此,中国绿发会成立了星空工作委员会,旨在保护暗夜、重塑星空作为遗产的价值,并唤起人们对光污染的认识。

光污染对于海洋生态系统等会带来什么样的影响?最近一篇新的研究显示:人造光对北极浮游动物也产生了较大的影响。研究人员发现,在浮游动物群落中,光照引导它们垂直运动的周期性行为,即昼夜垂直迁徙(DVMs)。中国绿发会星空工作委员会现将此文翻译分享如下。

译者按/Linda 翻译/Cat 编/Angel

Artificial Light Affects Zooplankton in Arctic

人造光影响北极浮游动物

on AUGUST 14, 2018

2018年8月14日

During the polar night in the high Arctic, a team of scientists
discovered “that certain aspects of the polar marine ecosystems are
extremely sensitive to potential light pollution and that traditional
sampling techniques are insufficient to study them.”

在北极高纬度地区的极夜期间,一个科学家团队发现,“在极地海洋生态系统中,某些方面对潜在的光污染极其敏感,而传统的抽样技术还不足以研究这些方面。”

Using a Jetyak, an Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) equipped with an
engine and scientific instruments, researchers studied the behavior of
zooplankton in an unpolluted light environment and compared that to how
zooplankton behaved in a light-polluted environment close to their
traditional research vessels. They observed that despite the fact that
the sun never rose above the horizon, zooplankton responded to small
changes in natural light in areas without light pollution.

研究人员运用了Jetyak来比较浮游动物在无光污染环境、以及在靠近传统调查船只的光污染环境下的表现,Jetyak是一种自动驾驶的无人艇(Autonomous
Surface Vehicle,
简称ASV),它配备了一个引擎和科研设备。研究人员发现,尽管太阳从未升到海平面以上,在无光污染区域里,浮游动物对自然光的微妙变化还是做出了反应。

美高梅注册 1

根据美国国家海洋及大气总署(NOAA)等机构的天文科学家绘制的“全球光污染地图”,地球上1/3人口无法看到灿烂星空。图/NOAA

Light is an important cue for many biological processes. The study
notes, “the zooplankton community is intimately connected to the ambient
light regime.” In zooplankton communities, light induces cyclical
patterns of vertical movements called diel vertical migrations (DVMs).
According to the authors of this study, “The DVM of zooplankton is the
most widespread and synchronized movement of biomass on the planet and
thus is one of the most important factors to consider for understanding
marine food-web interactions and ecosystem structures.”

光是多种生物过程的重要信号。这篇研究指出:“浮游动物与周围的光照密切相关。”在浮游动物群落中,光照引导它们垂直运动的周期性行为,即昼夜垂直迁徙(DVMs)。这项研究的作者表示,“浮游动物的昼夜垂直迁徙行为是地球上分布程度最广、步骤最协调的生物量大迁徙,因此,如要了解海洋食物网络的相互作用、生态系统结构,它们也是最需要考虑的重要因素之一。

美高梅注册 2

来源:IDA

However, zooplankton display a strong light-escape response. The
scientists found that the artificial light emitted from traditional
sampling platforms interferes with the natural rhythms of zooplankton to
a depth of 100 meters. This study emphasizes the need for changes to the
lighting used on traditional sampling platforms in aquatic environments
in order to collect accurate data. The study notes, “Despite an
increased awareness that small changes in natural light affect the
behavior of marine organisms in naturally dim environments, we are only
starting to understand how and why organisms respond to changes in light
that occur on scales below what most commercial sensors can detect.”

然而,浮游动物对光照展现了强烈的逃逸反应。科学家发现,传统采样平台发出的人造光影响了深至100米浮游动物的自然节律。该项研究强调,为搜集准确数据,改变水生环境传统采样平台使用的照明方式十分必要。研究表明,尽管人们越来越意识到自然光微小的改变会影响海洋生物在自然昏暗环境中的行为,但我们才刚开始了解生物体如何以及为什么会对光变化做出反应,而这些变化是在大多数商业传感器探测范围内发生的。

This study has implications far beyond the design of research vessels.
The researchers are concerned that sea ice loss (caused by global
warming) is leading to more human activity in the Arctic by creating
openings for new shipping routes and oil and gas exploration. The
artificial lights that will come with these human activities will
undoubtedly affect natural rhythms and biological processes of
zooplankton.

该研究的意义远超过研究船只的设计。研究人员担心,海冰的消失(由全球变暖引起)会引发北极地区更多的人类活动——开辟新的航运路线和开采石油、天然气。
这些人类活动带来的人造光,无疑会影响浮游动物的自然节律和生物过程。

Zooplankton are small organisms that, together with phytoplankton, form
a large part of the base of the food chain in the oceans. And as the
study notes, zooplankton play an important role in the sequestration of
carbon dioxide, carrying millions of tons of carbon vertically in the
ocean during their daily cyclical movements.

浮游动物是一种小型生物,与浮游植物共同形成了海洋食物链的主要基础部分。正如该研究指出的,浮游动物对固定二氧化碳有重要的作用,它们的日常周期性运动,垂直携带了数百万吨的碳。

It is clear that artificial light affects zooplankton, which ripples
through the ecosystems of the ocean. This then affects the atmosphere
above the surface of the water. In order to further understand these
relationships, research vessels need to be designed with the light
sensitivity of zooplankton in mind.

很明显,人造光影响浮游动物,从而波及海洋生态系统,接着又会影响水面上的大气。为了更加深入了解它们的关系,设计调查船只需要谨记浮游动物对光的敏感性。

译/Cat 审/Linda 编/Angel

【参考文献】

  1. Ludvigsen, M., Berge, J., Geoffroy,
    M., Cohen, J. H., Pedro, R., Nornes, S. M., … & Johnsen, G. (2018). Use
    of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle reveals small-scale diel vertical
    migrations of zooplankton and susceptibility to light pollution under
    low solar irradiance. Science advances, 4(1), eaap9887.

【原文链接】

Artificial Light Affects Zooplankton in
Arctic

http://darksky.org/artificial-light-affects-zooplankton-in-arctic/

Use of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle
reveals small-scale diel vertical migrations of zooplankton and
susceptibility to light pollution under low solar irradiance

http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/1/eaap9887.full

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